Natural gas price statistics (2024)

Natural gas prices for household consumers

Highest gas prices in Sweden, Ireland and the Netherlands

For household consumers in the EU (defined for the purpose of this article as medium-sized consumers with an annual consumption between 20Gigajoules (GJ) and 200GJ), natural gas prices in the second half of 2023 were highest in Sweden, Ireland and the Netherlands and lowest in Hungary, Croatia and Romania (see Figure1). The price of natural gas for households in Sweden (€0.2070 per Kilowatt hour (KWh)) was more than six times the price charged in Hungary (€0.0335 per KWh) and 84% higher than the EU average price (€0.1125 per KWh).

Figure 1: Natural gas prices for household consumers, second half 2023
(€ per KWh)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_pc_202)

The average price in the EU — a weighted average using the most recent (second half of 2023) data for natural gas customer prices for household consumers — was €0.1125 per KWh.

Figure2 presents the development of natural gas prices for household consumers in the EU since the first half of 2008. Generally, these prices are higher in the second half of each year. This is due to the seasonal effect and reflected in the zig-zag shape of the lines in Figure2. However, the recent substantial price changes attenuated this phenomenon, since the first half of 2022. Overall, in the EU, there was an upward trend in natural gas total prices in the first half of each year, from a low of €0.0562 per KWh in the first half of 2010 to a local peak of €0.0692 per KWh in the first half of 2013. Then the price decreased until 2017, started increasing again in 2018, before dropping once again in 2020. The prices demonstrated a sharp increase, between the second half of 2021, up to 2022. In the second half of 2023, the price of natural gas for household consumers decreased to €0.1125 per KWh, from €0.1137 per KWh the year before, after an all-time high in the first half of 2023. The proportion of the taxes increased from 25% in the first half of 2008 to 36% in the first half of 2021 and then decreased to 20.8% in the second half of 2023, reflecting the subsidies and allowances measures taken from the countries to alleviate the burden of high energy prices. Prices excluding taxes in the second half of 2023 (€0.0891 per KWh) were lower than the respective prices of the first half of 2023 (-2.7%) and also lower than the second half of 2022 (-9.1%).

Figure 2: Development of natural gas prices for household consumers, EU, 2008-2023
(€ per KWh)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_pc_202)

Weight of taxes and levies differs greatly between EU Member States

Figure3 shows the proportion of taxes and levies in the overall natural gas retail price for household consumers. The relative tax contribution in the second half of 2023 was the least in Luxembourg, where subsidies and allowances led to negative figures (-13.88%). The highest taxes were observed in Denmark, where total taxes and levies corresponded to 46.64% of the final price. In the Netherlands this percentage was 46.53%. The VAT in the EU represented 9.69% of the total price. The share of VAT in the total price ranged from 4.60% in Italy to 21.49% in Hungary. Compared with the second half of 2022, the share of taxes increased by 7.0 percentage points (pp), from 13.8% to 20.8%, also increased compared with first half of 2023 (18.8%). These changes relate to the governmental allowances and subsidies to mitigate high-energy costs in the second half of 2022, reduced in the first half of 2023, and further reduced in the second half of 2023, but is also a consequence of the overall changes in the price of the energy and supply component.

Figure 3: Share of taxes and levies paid by household consumers for natural gas, second half 2023
(%)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_pc_202)

Higher increase in gas prices for household consumers in Lithuania, Poland and Slovakia

Figure4 shows the change in natural gas prices for household consumers including all taxes, levies and VAT from the second half of 2022 to the second half of 2023. For comparison purposes the national currencies were used. These prices increased during the period under consideration in 12 of the 24 EU Member States for which data are available, while they decreased in 12 Member States (Cyprus, Malta and Finland do not report natural gas prices in the household sector and for Romania no comparison was done, due to methodological differences in 2022). The largest increases were observed in Lithuania (67.7%), Poland (24.3%) and Slovakia (22.4%). The largest decreases were observed in Greece (-42.1%), Denmark (-41.3%) and Bulgaria (-40.1%). The cost of energy was the main driver of the price changes.

Gas prices in purchasing power standard

In Map1, gas prices for household consumers in the second half of 2023 are shown in purchasing power standard (PPS) grouping the available countries in six categories, with gas price categories ranging from above 15 PPS per 100 KWh to below 6.5 PPS per 100 KWh. The final burden for the consumers is calculated based on their own consumption. The gas prices per 100KWh, expressed in purchasing power standard were highest in Lithuania (19.32PPS), Sweden (17.85PPS) and Portugal (16.3PPS). The lowest gas prices based on the PPS were observed in Hungary (5.1PPS) and Luxembourg (6.5PPS).

Map 1: Gas prices for household consumers, second half 2023
(PPS per 100 KWh)
Source: Eurostat (nrg_pc_202)

Data sources

Defining household consumers

Throughout this article, references to household consumers relate to the medium standard household consumption band with an annual consumption of natural gas (only piped gas is considered) between 5555 KWh and 55555 KWh (20 GJ and 200 GJ). All figures are consumer retail prices and include taxes, levies and VAT. Cyprus, Malta and Finland do not report natural gas prices in the household sector. The full datasets for gas prices for households consumers are available at:

  • Gas prices for household consumers - bi-annual data (from 2007 onwards) (nrg_pc_202)
  • Gas prices components for household consumers - annual data (nrg_pc_202_c)

and

  • Share for transmission and distribution in the network cost for gas and electricity - annual data (nrg_pc_206)


Defining non-household consumers

Throughout this article, references to non-household consumers relate to the medium standard non-household consumption band with an annual consumption of natural gas between 2778 GWh and 27778 GWh (10000 GJ and 100000 GJ). Prices correspond to the basic price for natural gas, including all non-recoverable taxes and levies. Cyprus and Malta do not report natural gas prices in the non-household sector. Quantities of natural gas used for chemical processes or electricity and/or combined heat and power production are excluded from these data. The full datasets for gas prices for non-households consumers are available at:

  • Gas prices for non-household consumers - bi-annual data (from 2007 onwards) (nrg_pc_203)
  • Gas prices components for non-household consumers - annual data (nrg_pc_203_c)

and

  • Share for transmission and distribution in the network cost for gas and electricity - annual data (nrg_pc_206)

Methodology

Prices in national currencies are converted into euro using the average exchange rate of the period for which the prices were reported.

Prices are always compared with the prices of the same semesters (i.e. year on year) in order to avoid seasonal effects.

In 2016, Regulation (EU) No 2016/1952 entered into force. It defines the obligation for the collection and dissemination of natural gas prices for household and non-household consumers. Until 2016, the domain of non-household consumers was defined as industrial consumers, but reporting authorities were allowed to include other non-household consumers. With Regulation (EU) No 2016/1952, the definition was changed from industrial to non-household consumers to have a unique methodology for all reporting countries. Until January 2017, the reporting authorities provided their price data for the household sector on a voluntary basis.

Natural gas tariffs or price schemes vary from one supplier to another. They may result from negotiated contracts, especially for large non-household consumers. For smaller consumers, they are generally set according to a number of characteristics including the amount of natural gas consumed. Most tariffs also include some form of fixed charge. There is, therefore, no single price for natural gas. In order to compare prices over time and between EU Member States, this article shows information for consumption bands for household consumers and for non-household consumers. Natural gas prices for household consumers are divided into three annual consumption bands and, for non-household consumers, into six different consumption bands.

The prices collected cover average prices over a period of 6 months (a half-year or semester) from January to June (first semester) and from July to December (second semester) of each year. Prices include the basic price of natural gas, transmission and distribution charges, metre rental, and other services. Natural gas prices for household consumers presented in this article include taxes, levies, non-tax levies, fees and value added tax (VAT) as this generally reflects the total price paid by household consumers. As non-household consumers are usually able to recover VAT and some other taxes, prices for non-household consumers are shown without VAT and other recoverable taxes/levies/fees. The unit for natural gas prices is that of euro per kilowatt hour (€ per KWh).

Allowances in the reference period 2022 Semester 1 and Semester 2

Belgium:

Electricity and gas prices for household customers (2023 S2) With regard to household consumption of electricity and gas, the Belgium government has decided to keep the lower TVA rate of 6%.In order to compensate for this, form April 1 2023 there was a huge rise of the excise duties on gas and electricity.For example:

- Main excise duty on Electricity consumption households:
- Consumption category (0-3 Mwh-Year):
- Before April 1 2023: 13,60 €/Mwh
- April 1 - June 30: 42,58 €/Mwh
- Since July 1 2023: 47,48 €/Mwh
- Main excise duty on Gas consumption households:
- Consumption category (0-12 Mwh-Year):
- Before April 1 2023: 0,54 €/Mwh
- April 1 - June 30: 5,06 €/Mwh
- Since July 1 2023: 8,23 €/Mwh

According to convention, excise duties have to be categorized as environmental taxes. Therefore in the Belgian case in 2023 there was a very significant rise in environmental taxes.Since 2007, a rather small part of the Belgian households (±10% before and after the 'energy crisis'; temporarily enhanced to ±15% during the 'energy crisis') is eligible to "social energy (electricity and gas) tariffs".The policy goal is to protect the most vulnerable households. Eligibility is based on strictly defined social classifications'.These social tariffs are included in the calculation of in the Belgian semestrial price statistics.During the energy crisis these social energy tariffs impacted the semestrial price statistics in a double way:- There was a temporal rise in eligibility from ±10% to ±15% of all households.- Although there was always al link between the social tariffs and the market prices, during periods of very strong price rises there was a considerable lagging effect.- In general the existence of social energy tariffs has somewhat 'softened' the general price movements.

Bulgaria:

In the 2nd semester of 2023, the Bulgarian government continues to apply the program to compensate the final non-household customers only for the months October - November. The program envisages a temporary mechanism to support non-household customers through electricity suppliers in the form of a monthly compensation, calculated for each individual customer. The compensations are deducted from the total final price after VAT has been charged on each monthly invoice.The certain specifics in the compensation of non-households customers for the months October - November 2023 are the same as the previous semester:1.The compensation is calculated in the amount of 100 percent of the difference between the real average monthly exchange price of the "day-ahead" segment of "Bulgarian Independent Energy Exchange" EAD, for the relevant month, and the base price of BGN 200/MWh for the period from September 1, 2023 to December 31, 2023. 2.For customers with prices below the base price of BGN 200/MWh, the compensation is not applied.3.To customers with a price exceeding the base price by an amount smaller than the amount of the compensation calculated according to p.1, compensation is paid in a reduced amount, so that the resulting price for the customer after compensation is not lower than 200.The way of reporting of these compensations for the semester is fully in accordance with the latest instructions of Eurostat as follows: they are deducted in the 2nd level Electricity prices, excluding VAT and other recoverable taxes and are also recalculated so that the difference between 3rd level prices and 2nd level prices is only 20% VAT.

Czechia:

Electricity:Price ceilings: since 01.01.2023 – to 31.12.2023From January 1, households will pay a maximum of 5,000 crowns per megawatt-hour excluding VAT for so-called power electricity. This applies to households, self-employed people and small businesses with a price higher than the price ceiling. They will be capped at 100 percent of their annual consumption. At the low voltage level, prices will be fully capped even for consumption by small, medium and large enterprises.For high and very high voltage for small and medium-sized businesses, in this case the capped prices will apply to 80 percent of the highest monthly consumption over the past five years. Large businesses will be entitled to a 100% cap on consumption if they are among the public service providers. Others will have a price cap at 80 percent of their consumption.Fee for supported energy sources (POZE) – was waived for all end-consumers from October 2022 to December 2023.Natural gas:Price ceilings: since 01.01.2023 – to 31.12.2023From January 1, 2023, the price for gas supply will be set at CZK 2,500/MWh without VAT.The fixed monthly salary for the supply of gas is set at 130 CZK without VAT/point of supply per month for small consumers. If it is not gas supply for small consumers, the price for gas supply applies to 80% of the highest monthly value of gas consumption at the point of consumption, if the customer is a small, medium or large business, with the exception of gas supply for electricity production. The price for energy will be capped at 80% of the highest monthly consumption over the past 5 years. Large businesses will be entitled to a 100% cap on consumption if they are among the public service providers.All price compensation were ended by 31.12.2023.

Denmark:

The only compensation initiative in first half 2023 is an almost suspended electricity tax. Normally this tax will be about 0.,90 DKK per kWh, but in first Semester 2023 it was only 0.008 DKK per kWh (EU minimum). In second Semester 2022 there already was a reduction, meaning that households only pay about 0.75 DKK per kwh. The reductions mentioned above are basically only for the households – and not active in second Semester 2023.For 2022 there was a compensation for mainly private gas users, paid out as lump sum, which reflected in the 2022-submissions. There are no known plans for similar schemes as regards 2023

Germany:

An electricity levy was eliminated in 2022. No further measures were reported for 2023.

Estonia:

The implementation of the measures developed by the state to mitigate the increase in energy prices has ended. No measures were implemented in the second half of 2023.

Ireland:

Electricity: Ireland Household Prices: Due to the increases in energy prices from 2022, Ireland has introduced measures to alleviate the burden on final consumers. Domestic electricity customers, including pay as you go customers, have so far received €950 worth of credits on their electricity cost, spread over their bills as follows: April/May 2022: €200, November/December 2022: €200, January/February 2023: €200, March/April 2023: €200, December 2023: €150. Customers will also receive 2 credits of €150 between January and March 2024. A further measure to tackle rising energy costs has been introduced in the way of a cut in VAT on gas and electricity bills from 13.5% to 9% from 1 May 2022. This VAT reduction has now been extended to October 2024. Ireland Non-Household Prices: The Temporary Business Energy Support Scheme (TBESS) was introduced in the second half of 2022 to support non-domestic customers with increases in their electricity or natural gas (energy) costs. The scheme was administered by Ireland Revenue and provided a cash payment to qualifying non-domestic customers. As it was not administered by electricity suppliers, TBESS rebates are not accounted for in the prices. The time limit for making a claim for the Temporary Business Energy Support Scheme (TBESS) expired on 30 September 2023.Gas: Ireland Household Prices: To tackle rising energy costs, VAT on gas and electricity bills has been cut from 13.5% to 9% from 1 May 2022. This VAT reduction has now been extended to October 2024. Ireland Non-Household Prices: The Temporary Business Energy Support Scheme (TBESS)[1] was introduced in the second half of 2022 to support non-domestic customers with increases in their electricity or natural gas (energy) costs. The scheme was administered by Ireland Revenue and provided a cash payment to qualifying non-domestic customers. As it was not administered by electricity suppliers, TBESS rebates are not accounted for in the prices. The time limit for making a claim for the Temporary Business Energy Support Scheme (TBESS) expired on 30 September 2023.

Greece:

In the case of electricity, the consumers, household and non household, received compensations as an amount of €/MWh in their electricity bills, different for each month and according to monthly consumption. For household consumers: In January the compensation was €330 for consumption 0-500kWh, €280* for 501-1000kWh, €190* for >1001kWh. In February and March €40** for 0-500kWh consumption and in April, May and June €15*** for 0-500 kWh consumption. For July to December the amount ranged from €10-€25 for 0-500kWh consumption and no compensation for large consumptions. For S2 2023, compensation was only for specific business categories, such as bakeries and agriculture €10-€15.

*There was an extra allowance of 50 €/MWh in case the consumption was decreased by 15% compared with the corresponding period of the previous year.
** There was an extra allowance of 40 €/MWh in case the consumption was decreased by 15% compared with the corresponding period of the previous year.
*** There was an extra allowance of 15 €/MWh in case the consumption was decreased by 15% compared with the corresponding period of the previous year.

For non-household consumers the compensation (€/MWh, except <35 kVA) was €134 for January and €20 for February, while there was no compensation for the months March-June.Moreover, for the first semester of 2022, there was an extra financial allowance for the household customers only which was paid directly to them and did not appear on their electricity bills. Not all household consumers were eligible, as certain conditions had to be met. In any case, this allowance could not exceed €600 per beneficiary. This measure is no longer in force. Furthermore, regarding non-households, the subsidies were provided only for January and February, beyond this period no further measure was applied.In the case of the consumption of natural gas, there were no support measures during the reference period. During 2022 the following measures were put in force:In the first semester of 2022, all consumers (households and non-households) were entitled of a subsidy for the consumption of natural gas. The use of natural gas for electricity production was exempted from the subsidy. The level of the subsidy was different for the two categories of consumers and for each month. During the second semester of 2022 only non-households, with the exemption of electricity production, were entitled of a subsidy for the period July-October 2022. The level of the subsidy differed during this period.For gas, these measures are no longer in force.

Spain:

The Government of Spain has maintained the measures adopted during 2021 and reinforced them during 2022. The idea is to continue cushioning the impact of electricity prices on final consumers. These measures have focused on the "taxes, fees and charges" component, such as applying reduced rates to both VAT and the Special Electricity Tax, as well applying a new reduction in electricity charges applicable during 2023, comparing them with those of the previous year.

France:

There are slight changes on measures taken the previous year: Since February 2023, the evolution of prices of gas and electricity including taxes is capped at 15% for individual with regulated prices. In 2023, French state mitigates the electricity bill for small and medium-sized companies which do not benefit from regulated tariffs with subsidies up to two millions euros. These subsidies are limited in volume and price.

Croatia:

Gas:VAT remains at 5%Decision on subsidizing part of the end price of gas supply for households, and non-households with an annual gas consumption of up to 10 GWh: -Support for households, the amount of support: 0,0199 EUR/kWh-Support for non-households, annual gas consumption of up to 10 GWh, the amount of support: 0,0199 EUR/kWhIn March 2023, the Government of the Republic of Croatia has adopted new Regulation on eliminating disturbances on the domestic energy market which extended the application of special and temporary measures for gas trade, for the period from April 1, 2023 to March 31, 2024. Regulation prescribes the price cap on gas producers price, at which gas producer sells gas to the gas trader for the needs of distribution system operators for the purpose of settling losses for gas distribution, for the purpose of settling gas losses in the transmission system and for operational consumption of technological facilities of the transmission system, for the needs of households who use/or will use the supply under public service obligations and for certain customers from the non-household category.Electricity: In March 2023, the Government of the Republic of Croatia has adopted new Regulation on eliminating disturbances on the domestic energy market which extended the application of special and temporary measures for electricity trade, for the period from April 1, 2023 to March 31, 2024. Regulation prescribes the price cap on electricity producers price, regulated prices for households and non-households, mitigating the rise in electricity prices, limitation of the increase in fees for electricity. Additionally, social benefits for citizens at risk of energy poverty, support for pensioners with low pensions.

Italy:

The Italian Government has implemented extraordinary and temporary measures to contain the exceptional increases in energy prices with the allocation of resources from the State Budget. More precisely, the Government has adopted various measures starting from the second half of 2021, which were then continued and, in some cases, strengthened during 2022 and 2023.It was therefore possible to reduce or to set to zero the price components aimed to cover the general system charges in the electricity sector (ASOS and ARIM tariffs) until March 2023 and in the natural gas sector (RE, GS e UG3 tariffs) for household users and non-household users until December.Furthermore, starting from the year 2023, the nuclear charges (due to the financing of the decommissioning of nuclear power plants and the financing of territorial compensation measures) hitherto covered with part of the ARIM tariff are no longer collected by electricity suppliers as financed by the state budget. For 2023, the financing has been established at 400 million euros, a value that will be updated annually as needed.Gas: The Government temporarily reduced the VAT rate applicable to the supply of gas for civil and industrial uses to 5%, in the invoices issued for consumption of the fourth quarter of 2021. This reduction was then further extended to cover consumption until December 2023 (see details in the table 1). Starting from January 2024, the VAT rate applied to gas consumption has come back under usual conditions:10% for annual consumption up to 480 m3, and 22% over this threshold for household users; 10% for non-household users. Starting from the third quarter of 2022 to the second quarter of 2023, the Government has also taken a significant measure in favor of customers with consumption of up to 5,000 m3/year consisting of a large discount (about 30 eurocent per cubic meter), which actually has produced a reduction in the total price. On a formal level, since this discount was applied through a negative component classified among general system charges, it made the total of the charges themselves no longer equal to zero, but negative, for the aforementioned customers (up to 5,000 m3/year).Finally, the Government adopted some measures which, while not having a direct impact on energy prices, help consumers to alleviate the higher cost of energy products. These measures consist in expanding the number of beneficiaries of energy bonuses and in increasing the value of these bonuses for household consumers in poor economic conditions and in granting a tax credit to non-domestic consumers for the purchase of electricity and natural gas.

Latvia:

For all consumers, a 100% discount on distribution tariffs was applied from January 2022 to April 2022. From November 2021, the Electricity Market Law stipulates that protected users (needy or low-income persons, families with many children or families with children with disabilities, as well as persons with group I disabilities) have the right to receive additional support for protected users for electricity payments. The support takes the form of partial compensation of the amount of the monthly electricity bill from the state budget.

Luxembourg:

From 1 May to 31 December 2022, the Government has decided to bear the costs for the distribution network as well as the fixed monthly fee for residential customers.Cost compensations offered by government are applicable, from 1 January 2023 to 31 December 2024 on electricity, to all final consumers who have a consumption below 25 000 kWh.

Hungary:

Electricity: In Hungary, all of the household consumers are supplied by universal service providers applying regulated tariffs. From the 1 August 2022 the universal service prices changed, to reflect the higher electricity prices on the market. For consumption above 2 523 kWh/year/consumption point, a higher, but still regulated price needs to be paid for the electricity. This pricing is set quarterly to reflect the changes in the market price.Natural gas: In Hungary, all of the of household consumers are supplied by universal service providers applying regulated tariffs. From 1 August 2022 the universal service prices changed, to reflect the higher natural gas prices on the market. For consumption above 63 645 MJ/year/consumption point, a higher, but still regulated price needs to be paid for the natural gas. This pricing is set quarterly to reflect the changes in the market price.

Netherlands:

In 2022 the government provided a refund (allowance) to all electricity consumers. In addition, the VAT percentage went from 21% to 9%, only for 2022S2.Tax relief measures from 2022 are not continued in 2023. The tax refund dropped almost 30%, while the energy taxes on electricity doubled for households. The government has set a price cap on household prices for 2023. These have not yet been implemented in the reported prices. The average prices are therefore higher than the price cap, and a lot higher than the prices would be if implemented. For 2023 Semester 1 the following (changes in) support measures are taken into account:(a) VAT rate is back to 21%, from 9% in 2022S2, (b) Energy tax rates are back to levels from 2021, where 2022 saw a large drop in these rates for electricity - for gas the incline in rates is steady in all these years, (c) the annual allowance (refund) is still in place, as it has been for years. The amount however is lower than in 2022 and more in range of the 2021 amount, (d) The lump sum of €1.300 paid to low incomes (<120% of social minimum income) is also implemented in 2023, (e) the additional allowance of €190 is ceased. This was only for 2 months in 2022.

Austria:

Natural Gas: The natural gas levy has been reduced from 1 May 2022 to 31 December 2023 from 0.066 €/ m3 to 0.01196 €/ m3.Electricity: 1. The electricity levy has been reduced from 1 May 2022 to 31 December 2023 from 0.015 €/kWh to 0.001 €/kWh.2. For certain load profiles (H, G or L) the energy price up to 2 900 kWh per year has been limited with 10 Cent/kWh. That applies from 1 December 2022 to 30 June 2024. Households with four or more people get additional money which has been paid out in three tranches. a. Tranche 1: 1 December 2022 to 30 June 2023 - €61.25 per additional personb. Tranche 2: 1 July 2023 to 31 December 2023 - €52.50 per additional personc. Tranche 3: 1 January 2024 to 30 June 2024 - €52.50 per additional person3. Households get a voucher of €150 for energy cost compensation. This voucher has been paid out with the yearly bill. The vouchers have been taken into account from the first half-year of 2022 to the end of 2023.4. The network tariffs have been reduced for households with low income from 1 January 2023 to 30 June 2024. The network tariffs for those households are reduced up to 75%.5. Several provinces have additional financial support for their inhabitants. a) Lower Austria (October 2022 – September 2023): Fixed amount depending on the household size: One person household €169.58, Two-person household €272.36, Three-person household €374.44, Four-person household €415.80, Five-person household €457.07, For each additional person €41.27b) Vorarlberg: In 2022 each household got €33.33 and households with low income got €120. From 1 April 2023 to 30 June 2024 the energy price has been reduced by 3 Cent/kWhc) Salzburg: price cap for hot water boiler (load profiles ULA and ULB) up to 1 000 kWh per year with 10 Cent/kWh.

Poland:

For certain groups of eligible customers, the maximum price for gaseous fuel shall apply. This applies mainly households and the majority of public utilities (education, health care, social assistance and many others). The net fuel price (level 1 without energy`s supply) for such customers is a maximum of 55,602(7) PLN/GJ. The maximum price of gas fuel for the indicated groups is to be valid until June 31, 2024.

Portugal:

1.Fornecimento supletivo (Regulation No. 951/2021, of November 2)Application of supplementary supply, in the gas and electricity sectors, similarly to what happened in the previous semester, whose immediate effect is felt in reported prices as customers are now billed by the CUR (last resort seller).2.Reduction in electricity network access tariffs for 2023: significantly alleviates impact of high wholesale price rises in end-user electricity bills (household and non-households) via considerable reductions in the network access tariffs applied to all voltage levels.3.The reduction of the VAT rate for electricity customers in BTN, with contracted power less than or equal to 3.45 kVA.4.Application of the intermediate rate of VAT (13%) to electricity consumption (does not include fixed component, fees and taxes) of all contracts with a power not exceeding 6.9 kVA, for monthly periods of 30 days, with the following limits: does not exceed 100 kWh per 30-day period or, when purchased for consumption by large families, 150 kWh per 30-day period.5.Social tariffs, applied to economically vulnerable electricity customers.6.Iberian mechanism for limiting electricity prices, applied since June 15, 2022, an ended in December 2023. The Iberian Mechanism makes it possible to set a reference price for natural gas consumed for the production of electricity, based on which a significantly lower value in the Iberian Electricity Market (MIBEL).7.Possibility of returning to the regulated tariff in the gas Market (Since September 7, 2022). Applies to consumers in the domestic sector and small businesses with annual consumption of less than 10 000 m3.8.A discount on the price of natural gas for customers with annual consumption exceeding 10 000 m3, only applies to the energy component (Decree-Law no. 84-D/2022, of December 9). The discount covers 80% of each consumer's reference period consumption under this support. Furthermore, regardless of whether that 80% level is reached or not, the discount ends as soon as the amount of 1 000 000 000 euros is exhausted.

Romania:

The average prices presented in the EUROSTAT format are those from the supply contracts, as they were reported by the suppliers active on the electricity and natural gas retail market in the first semester of 2023. Compared with the contractual values presented, in the reporting period, according to the provisions of the Government Emergency Ordinance no. 27/2022 regarding the measures applicable to final clients in the electricity and natural gas market from 1 April 2022 to 31 March 2023, as well as for the modification and completion of some normative acts in the field of energy (GEO 27/2022), with subsequent amendments and additions, the prices billed to electricity and natural gas household and non-household final clients have been capped, resulting in values that for certain categories are significantly lower than contractual values. The following table shows the capped values of the prices billed to electricity household clients, according to GEO no. 27/2022. Since the cap is applied on monthly consumption bands, the conversion to annual consumption bands is indicative. The final capped billed prices include network tariffs, taxes and VAT (EGO no. 27/2022). For annual consumption between 0 – 1200 kWh the capped billed price (lei/kWh) is 0.68, for 1200 – 3060 kWh 0.8, for 3060 – 3600 0.8-1.3 and >3600 1.3.For electricity non-household clients, EGO no. 27/2022 provides for two capped values of the final price, 1 leu/kWh and 1.3 lei/kWh, which do not depend on the monthly or annual consumption but on the type of activity.For natural gas clients the capped prices are a maximum of 0.31 lei/kWh, for household clients, respectively a maximum of 0.37 lei/kWh for non-household clients and thermal energy producers (in cogeneration plants and in thermal plants for the consumption intended for the consumers as direct clients of natural gas producers - PET), the only constraint to qualify for capping is for the category of non-household final clients whose annual consumption of natural gas in the previous year at the place of consumption is of no more than 50 000 MWh.

Slovenia:

In order to mitigate the consequences of rising energy prices for final consumers in Slovenia certain measures in the field of electricity and natural gas were taken. The measures that were in place during the year 2023 are listed below. 1. Temporarily omitting or reducing certain contributions: One of the first measures that is in place from February 2022 is the amended Regulation on determining the amount of excise duty for electricity reduced the excise duty for final consumers of electricity for 50%: - with an annual consumption of 0 to 10,000 MWh from EUR 3.05 per MWh to EUR 1.525 per MWh, - with an annual consumption above 10,000 MWh from EUR 1.800 per MWh to EUR 0.900 per MWh. At the same time amended Regulation on determining the amount of excise duty on energy products reduced the excise duty for final consumers of natural gas used for heating for 50% (from 0.0184 EUR per Sm3 to 0.0092 EUR per Sm3). All excise duties are reported under "environmental taxes" in Eurostat's tables (annual data). From September 2022 the VAT on electricity and natural gas prices (including all contributions, with an exception of administrative costs for issuing the invoice) was reduced from 22% to 9.5%. The measure was in force until 31 May 2023. From June 2023 VAT on electricity and natural gas prices is again put at 22%. CO2 contribution (environmental contribution for burdening the environment with carbon dioxide emissions) for natural gas was omitted from 1 September 2022 onwards (contribution equalled 0). The measure was in force until 8 May 2023. Regulation on the method of determining and calculating contributions for providing support for the production of electricity in cogeneration with high efficiency and from renewable energy sources was amended, which resulted in reduced contribution of RES+CHP for electricity consumers (by 50%) for household and small business from September 2022 onwards. RES+CHP contribution is reported under "environmental taxes" in Eurostat's tables for electricity prices.2. Specific aid to the industry and commercial sector: In December 2022 the Act on Aid to the Economical Sector to Mitigate the Consequences of the Energy Crisis was adopted. With this Act, the government subsidises the payment of high energy prices to beneficiaries in the period between January 1 and December 31, 2023. Commercial companies, independent entrepreneurs, economic interest associations and cooperatives, private institutes and associations, as well as chambers and trade unions are eligible for assistance - for all of them, it is a condition that they perform economic activity. Beneficiaries do not include small business customers, as they already have a regulated price for electricity and gas, as well as subjects from finance and insurance. Beneficiaries are able to apply for assistance in the amount of between 40 and 80 percent of the eligible costs, namely above 1.5 times the increase in the prices of electricity, natural gas and steam in 2023 - and the price comparison will be calculated based on the average price in 2021, except in the case of taking into account the principle of proportionality, when the year 2019 will be taken into account. The law sets the maximum allowed average prices for 2021 for electricity and natural gas for simple assistance. If the beneficiary has a lower average price, he can claim the latter. When calculating simple aid, the actual amount of energy used in 2023 will be taken into account, while special aid will take into account 70% of the amount of energy used in 2021. In total, the maximum allowable aid for the same costs and period is from EUR 2 million and all up to EUR 150 million per beneficiary. With the aim of helping the most affected companies with the measure, the maximum possible upper price per unit of energy product in 2023, which the beneficiary can claim is limited. This is EUR 510 per MWh for electricity and EUR 160 per MWh for natural gas. At the same time, the lowest price per unit of energy was determined in 2023, namely EUR 150 per MWh for electricity and EUR 79 per MWh for natural gas. The beneficiary will be able to claim only one type of aid among the five types of aid: - In the case of simple aid, the beneficiaries will receive 50% of the eligible costs reimbursed, or up to EUR 2 million in total aid. Aid in agriculture will be lower, namely up to EUR 250,000 and in fisheries up to EUR 300,000; - basic special aid may comprise 50% of eligible costs and up to a maximum of EUR 4 million of total aid; - special aid for reduced economic performance of 40% of eligible costs and up to EUR 100 million; - special aid for energy-intensive companies 65% of eligible costs and up to EUR 50 million; - special aid in special sectors 80% of eligible costs and up to EUR 150 million. The law sets additional conditions for each category of aid, and at the request of the European Commission, the aid received under the temporary framework of all subordinate and parent companies is totaled for all aid for the economy. In addition to that: with a government regulation, from 1 September 2022 the highest permitted tariff items of the price of electricity for small business customers with a connection power equal to or less than 43 kW, who are not household customers, excluding VAT, was set to: Higher tariff: 0.13800 EUR/kWh Lower tariff: 0.09900 EUR/kWh Uniform tariff: 0.12400EUR /kWh.Small business customers can have several measuring points. In order to be entitled to regulated prices according to the regulation, the total power of all metering points must not exceed 86 kW. The regulation also applied to natural gas prices. The highest permitted tariff rate for natural gas in the amount of EUR 0.079/kWh (excluding VAT) applied to: - basic social services, kindergartens, primary schools, medical centres and small business clients, - replacement and basic electricity distribution for basic social services, kindergartens, primary schools, medical centres and small business clients. - heat distributors for district heating, supplying heat to kindergartens, primary schools and basic social services.3. Specific aid to households: With a government regulation, from 1 September 2022 the maximum permitted tariff items for the price of electricity for household customers and for the supply of electricity in common areas of multi apartment buildings and mixed multi-apartment-commercial buildings, without VAT, amounts to: Higher tariff (VT): 0.11800 EUR/kWh Lower tariff (NT): 0.08200 EUR/kWh Uniform tariff (ET): 0.09800 EUR/kWh In the same way, from September 2022 onwards the highest permitted tariff rate for natural gas in the amount of EUR 0.073/kWh (excluding VAT) applies to household customers and joint household customers, replacement and basic natural gas distribution for household customers and joint household customers, and distributors for district heating that supply heat to household customers.

Slovakia:

Maximum households prices were fixed for the whole year.Non-households consumers are divided into vulnerable customers with regulated prices and unregulated customers with market prices. The category of vulnerable customers with a regulated price consists of entities that meet conditions set by legislation.From February to November 2023, economic entities could apply for a subsidy to cover additional costs due to the increase in energy prices - electricity and gas. The authorized recipient of the subsidy had to fulfil the conditions specified in the call. The months from January to September 2023 are the authorized period for which the mentioned entities could send an application.

Finland:

Natural gas prices are not compensated by any means.

Sweden:

Following the compensation provided during 2021 and 2022, there have not been support measures in 2023 for gas or electricity regarding households. For the non-household consumers it is still work in progress.

Iceland:

Iceland is an independent producer of heat and electricity for housing. Heating is generally of geothermal origin. All electricity in the country is produced in hydro-powerplants in the country and thus does not rely on gas/nuclear/coal/fuels etc. Iceland's electricity net is not connected to Europe. The associated prices are thus not surging in Iceland as in many other countries. The government has not issued any measures to compensate prices for heating or for electricity nor is there any pressure to do so.

Norway:

The government of Norway introduced a temporary support scheme from December 2021 onwards where all households receive an amount of support per KWh electricity used. This amount varies from month to month depending on the average electricity spot price. This support is paid to household consumers by lowering their electricity bill, in all months where the wholesale electricity price is above a certain threshold. This support is paid to household consumers by lowering their electricity bill. The temporary electricity support scheme for households is expected to last at least until the end of 2024.

Context

The price and reliability of energy supplies are key elements in a country's energy supply strategy. Natural gas prices are of particular importance for international competitiveness, as natural gas might represent a significant proportion of total energy costs for industrial and service-providing businesses. Contrary to the price of fossil fuels, which are usually traded on global markets with relatively uniform prices, natural gas prices vary widely among EU Member States.

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Energy Emergency - preparing, purchasing and protecting the EU together, COM2022(553) final, coordinates solidarity efforts, secures the energy supply, stabilises price levels and support households and companies facing high energy prices.

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Tackling rising energy prices: a toolbox for action and support, COM2021(0660) final, points out the observed increase of wholesale energy prices. It is expected that it will be reflected in the final consumer prices in the official statistics for this reference period. The energy prices evolution in the second half 2021 will be available as European official statistics level in April 2022.

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, REPowerEU: Joint European Action for more affordable, secure and sustainable energy, COM2022(108) final, paves the way to reach independence from Russian gas well before the end of the decade.

In 2019, the European Commission presented the Clean energy for all Europeans package. The Commission completed a comprehensive update of its energy policy framework to facilitate the transition away from fossil fuels towards cleaner energy and to deliver on the EU's Paris Agreement commitments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

The Fit for 55 legislative proposals cover a wide range of policy areas including climate, energy, transport and taxation, setting out the ways in which the Commission will reach its updated 2030 target in real terms.

Directive 2009/73/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas aims to introduce common rules for the transmission, distribution, supply and storage of natural gas with the objectives of providing market access and enabling fair and non-discriminatory competition.

Regulation (EU) 2019/942 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2019 establishing a European Union Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators. ACER, among others, assists the regulatory authorities in carrying out, at EU level, the regulatory tasks performed in the EU Member States.

Regulation (EU) No 2016/1952 tackles data weaknesses led to the recommendation to improve the detail, transparency and consistency of energy price data collection.An energy prices and costs report would be prepared every 2 years. The European Commission thus published such a report also in 2016 and 2018.

The seventh report on energy prices and costs, as part of the [1] was published on 18 October 2022. The 2022 report is the third report since the adoption of the European Green Deal and the first after the adoption of the REPowerEU plan. It highlights the challenges that the energy sector has faced in the past 12 months and the progress made in addressing both shorter-term issues and Europe's long-term climate goals. In particular, the report takes stock of the EU's energy policy response to the current energy crisis, exacerbated by Russia's war in Ukraine.

Increased transparency for gas and electricity prices should help promote fair competition, by encouraging consumers to choose between different energy sources (oil, coal, natural gas and renewable energy sources) and different suppliers. Energy price transparency is more effective when publishing and broadcasting as widely as possible prices and pricing systems.

Natural gas price statistics (2024)

References

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